FMP Theory

Barthes. R. (1980) Camera Lucida. Vantage Classics, London.

‘If we expect the realm of Advertising, where the meaning must be clear and distinct only by reason of its mercantile nature, semiology of Photography is therefore limited to the admirable portraitists. For the rest, with regard to the heterogeneity of ‘good’ photographs, all we can say is that the object speaks, it induces us, vaguely, to think. And further: even this risks being perceived as dangerous. At the limit, no meaning at all is safer:

(Barthes, 1980:p36) ‘Society, it seems, mistrusts pure meaning: It wants meaning but at the same time it wants meaning to be surrounded by noise which will make it less acute. Hence the photograph whose meaning is too impressive is quickly deflected; we consume it aesthetically, not politically.’

Barthes, R. (1977). Image, music, text. New York: Hill and Wang.

Barthes (1977) when he states in relation to discourse and narrative ‘In order to conduct a structural analysis, it is thus first of all necessary to distinguish several levels or instances of description and to place these in sentences within a hierarchical (integrationary) perspective.‘

Barthes, R. (1958) Mythologies. Vantage, London.

Barthes (1958) in his essay argues ‘Steak and Chips’ makes assumptions about nationalism, masculinity, loyalty and status.

‘Steak is adorned with a supplementary virtue of elegance, for among the apparent complexity of exotic cooking, it is a food which unites, one feels succulence and simplicity. Being part of a nation, it follows the index of patriotic values: it helps them rise in wartime, it is the very flesh of the French soldier, the inalienable property which cannot go over to the enemy except by treason’.

Levi-Strauss, D. (2020) Photography and Beleif. David Zwirner Books, New York.

Levi Strauss (2020) comments that ‘photography opens up passageways to its subject, not as a signification but as a world, multiple and complex.’ 

Obrist, H (2015) Ways of Curating Hans Ulrich Obrist. Penguin, London

‘The connections and principles that produce a collection contain assumptions, juxtapositions, findings, experimental possibilities and associations. Collection making, you could say, is a method of producing knowledge.’ (Obrist 2015)

​​Obrist, H (2015: p55) speaks of the process of conducting interviews as ‘somehow bringing him closer to his art’ 

Haggart, R. (1957). The Uses of Literacy, Aspects of Working Class Life. Penguin, London.

Hoggart (1957:20) makes relevant comments when considering instances of good and bad luck

‘in what way exactly can working class people be said to believe in it? They repeat phrases but often with a saving prefatory. They say that…’ They do not intellectually examine them: yet on certain occasions they laugh readily at them as ‘old wives tales’. But usually take care to obey their directions‘.

Abel-Hirsch, H. (2014) Ponte City and the urban myth. The Mail and Guardian. [Online] Available at: (Accessed 12th Feb 2021)

Subotzky (2014) states of his project Ponte City ‘Photography has always been about relationships for Subotzky anyway — “the pressing of the button is almost a by-product of engaging with people”.

Helguera (2011) Education for Socially Engaged Art: A Materials and Techniques Handbook. New York, Jorge Pinto Books.

(Helguera 2011) who suggests that ‘participation creates vitality‘.

Lacey & Sank (2007) The Water’s Edge. Liverpool University Press and Open Eye Gallery, Liverpool.

(Lacy 2007) comments that the collaborative interviews and photographic events were conducted separately by separate people.

Laurent (2017) Why We Do It: Photographers and Photo Editors on the Passion That Drives Their Work [Online] Available at: 

Majoli’s environmental portraits reveal the collaborative nature of his approach and the importance of developing a space for mutual engagement between artist and sitter in the creative process. 

How does one define what a “cause” is? According to Webster, it is “a person or thing that acts, happens, or exists in such a way that some specific thing happens as a result; the producer of an effect.” 

Laurent (2017) in the Time website writes about photographers as ‘the ones who sort all of the chaos of the world into images that bring clarity to the free for all of life.’ 

Burr, V. (2003) Social Constructionism, Second Edition. Routledge, London. 

Burr, V. (2003) cites (Denzin 1995) ‘Readers create texts as they interpret and interact with them. The meaning of a text is always intermediate, open ended and interactional. Deconstruction is the analysis of texts’.

Burr (2003: p7)‘Social construction denies that our knowledge is a direct perception of reality. In fact it might be said that as a culture or society we construct our own versions of reality between us.’

Burr (2003: p7) states ‘It might be said that as a culture or society we construct our own versions of reality between us.’ 

Burr (2003) comments regarding discourses ‘It refers to a particular picture that is painted of an event, person or class of persons, a particular way of representing it in a certain light. If we accept the view… That a multitude of alternative versions of events are potentially available through language, this means that, surrounding any one object, event, person etc. There may be a variety of different discourses, each with a different story to tell about the object in question, a different way of representing it to the world’. 

Mittendorf (2017) [Online] Available at: [Accessed] 3rd May 2021.

Mittendorf (2017) comments “A good word for Renaissance art is “stabilize,” while a good one for the Baroque is “dramatize.” 

Abel-Hirsch, H. (2014) Ponte City and the urban myth. The Mail and Guardian. [Online] Available at: (Accessed 12th Feb 2021)

Abel-Hirsch (2014) cites Subotzky “People see a camera and think you’re photographing for the Daily Sun,” he says. So it was essential to explain what they were doing. Photography has always been about relationships for Subotzky anyway — “the pressing of the button is almost a by-product of engaging with people”.

Joanna Zylinska (2010) On Bad Archives, Unruly Snappers and Liquid Photographs, photographies, 3:2, 139-153, DOI: 10.1080/17540763.2010.499608 

Zylinska (2010) who suggests ‘in using analogue techniques and collecting such work is important ‘preservers of value and the past, as keepers, against all odds, of a certain world that (allegedly) once was.’ 

Pattison, J (2015) Exploring masculinity and mental health through the image. British Journal of Photography [Online] Available at: (Accessed 2nd Nov 2020)

“I decided to use this process because I wanted to physically make something with my hands. To experience some of the same benefits my dad did when he was making his objects as part of his occupational therapies.

Leslie, J. (2000) Issues: New Magazine Design. Calmann & King, London 

Leslie citing Carson (2000) comments ‘Whichever style they follow however, the basic elements remain the same: the literate reader expects a headline and a stand-first followed by the text.’ 

Leslie (2000) points out that there is no single way through a magazine and understanding that audiences who view the publication might not view it chronologically

Neville, M. 2020.  Mark Neville. Available [online] at (Accessed April 19th, 2021).

‘Throughout 2015 Neville distributed these copies free to Defence Mental Health Services, prison libraries, homeless veterans, probation services, and veteran mental health charities.’

Disease Control and Prevention 

Adverse childhood experiences, or ACEs, are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood (0-17 years). [Accessed 8th April 2021]

Men are less likely to discuss or seek help for their mental health problems

Pantall, C (2020) Cultural Appropriation, Interpersonal Voyeurism, and Own Voices. Colin Pantall’s Blog. Available at Date Accessed [27th Feb 2021]

‘The complexities and contradictions of life, the flaws and imperfections, the ability to recognise our own failures are what makes things interesting’.

Romero (2013) Christenberry, W (2013) William Christenberry. New York, Foundation Mapfre.

Romero in Christenberry highlights regarding his work (2013:p9) ‘Christonberry constructs an account of the South of the United States from within that South’. 

McNay (2014) Photomonitor.  Gareth Phillips: Search for ‘Hiraeth’ [Online] Available at: Accessed (28th Feb 2021)

McNay (2014) cites Gareth Phillips on the subject of being boxed in or given a particular label stating  ‘Having the freedom to produce without limitations is what excites me as a photographer,’ 

Mitchell, M. [Online] Available at: [Accessed] 22nd June 2021.

Mitchell states of her project ‘Passage’… “I want the viewer to ask themselves a question about how society operates, how choice is related to opportunity and environment. To see that sometimes people choose what they do because really, not much has been offered in the first place.”

Webb, A and Webb, R (2014) On Street Photography and the Poetic Image. Aperture, New York.

‘It’s important to take bad pictures. It’s the bad ones that have to do with what you’ve never done before. They can make you recognise something you hadn’t seen in a way that you will make you recognise it when you see it again’

Risch, C. (2018) Photo District News [Online] Available at: [Accessed] 3rd May 2021.

Risch (2018) comments “Jooney Woodward draws inspiration for her portraiture from Renaissance and Baroque paintings, and says her work is “quite static and composed compared to more reportage-y photographers.” 

Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. Abingdon: Routledge.

Butler (1990) suggests:

‘when we say that gender is performed, we usually mean that we’ve taken on a role; we’re acting in some way…. To say that gender is performative is a little different… For something to be performative means that it produces a series of effects. We act and walk and speak and talk that consolidate an impression of being a man or being a woman… we act as if that being of a man or that being of a woman is actually an internal reality or simply something that is true about us. Actually, it is a phenomenon that is being produced all the time and reproduced all the time’.

Franklin, S. (2016) The Documentary Impulse, Phaidon, New York.

Soth in Franklin (2016: pp 167) suggests

“I see poetry as the medium most similar to photography… Or at least the photography I pursue. Like poetry, photography, is rarely successful with narrative. What is essential is the ‘voice’ (or eye) and the way this voice pieces together fragments to make something tenuously whole and beautiful” 

Read and Simmons (2017)  Photographers and Research, The Role of Research in Contemporary Photographic Practice. Taylor and Francis, New York.

Read (2017) reaffirms the fostering intrinsic motivations ‘As a curator I am looking for what is at the core of the work. Powered by authentic concerns of the photographer’. In making this breakthrough I am in a position to increase the volume of the project and take the engagement to new levels. Read then concludes (2017)

‘The presence of the authentic voice is what lifts the work above the everyday’. And at this stage, and lockdown measures easing, it will be all systems go from here.

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